The organic standard is modular-based standard consisting of: (i) General farm management: Requirements that should be first complied with to gain certification, (ii) Scope Module: Specific requirements related to specific types of products (crops, livestock, aquaculture, and beekeeping) and to specific operators (producer, processor, and distributor) for each sector to comply with, and (iii) Special Module: Specific requirements for particular products, such as the products or commercial inputs.
The Scoping Study on Cross-border Agribusiness in Lao PDR: Focus on Champasak Province was financed by the Trade Development Facility, a multi-donor trust fund to support trade and investment – financed by the European Commission and the Government of Australia, and administered by the World Bank. The Trade Development Facility is implemented by the Lao Ministry of Industry and Commerce. The Study was undertaken by Anthony M. Zola, a consultant to the World Bank between 31 May and 31 August 2009
This paper presents the variations and implications of contract farming arrangements in three case studies—cabbage, maize, and sugarcane—in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). The variations in contract farming resulted in varying implications in terms of agreement types, degree of flexibility, extent of material support, and strength of relationships between the contracting farmer and the firm. Overall, contract farming has resulted in beneficial material and non-material outcomes for the Lao PDR farmers as observed in the three case studies.
The Scoping Study on Trade, Food Production, and Service Sector Linkages in Luang Prabang was financed by the Trade Development Facility, a multi-donor trust fund to support trade and investment, and the Lao Ministry of Industry and Commerce, and administered by the World Bank. The Study was undertaken by Anthony M. Zola, a consultant to the World Bank in February and March 2011.